Madhukar Pai

Providing affordable diagnosis to solve India's TB epidemic

In 2014, for the first time ever, tuberculosis (TB) caused more deaths worldwide than HIV/AIDS making TB the world’s biggest infectious disease killer. TB killed 1.5 million people in 2014, ahead of HIV/AIDS, which was responsible for 1.2 million deaths in the same year. The WHO Global TB Report also revealed that India continues to be the country with the highest TB burden with nearly one-fourth of the global burden.

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Antimicrobial resistance and the growing threat of drug-resistant tuberculosis

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health emergency, and experts are concerned that the end of the age of antimicrobials is imminent [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6]. Since the introduction of antimicrobials nearly a century ago, microbes have evolved a variety of methods to resist these drugs. Today, the world is dealing with ‘superbugs’ that are virtually untreatable, including drug-resistant gonorrhea, carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase producing strains [5]. The antibiotic pipeline is running dry, and AMR is threatening to undo major gains made in the control of infectious diseases. Models suggest that 300 million people are expected to die prematurely because of AMR over the next 35 years and the world’s GDP will be 2–3.5% lower than it otherwise would be in 2050 [6]. This translates into a loss of 60–100 trillion USD worth of economic output by 2050.

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Resources for TB diagnostic product developers

Prof Madhukar Pai, MD, PhD, of McGill University compiled links to several helpful resources, including TB diagnostics landscape and market analyses, target product profiles for priority TB diagnostics, and a list of frequently asked questions to facilitate the development of new TB diagnostic tools.

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The End TB Strategy: India can blaze the trail

How is the ‘End TB Strategy’ relevant in the Indian context, and how can India be a world leader in implementing the End TB Strategy?

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India: TB control requires new technologies

Although much effort has gone into tuberculosis control, reduction in incidence has been disappointingly slow. India is a good example. Although India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) covers the entire country, and has met the 2015 targets, India continues to report over 2 million cases every year, and accounts for 1 of the 3 million “missing cases” that are either not diagnosed, or not reported. 

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Testing and treating the missing millions with tuberculosis

Writing in observation of World Tuberculosis Day 2015, for which the Stop TB Partnership has established the theme "Reach, Treat, Cure Everyone," Madhukar Pai and Puneet Dewan call on national TB programs to retool in order to meet the ambitious goal of ending TB by 2035.

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Innovations in tuberculosis diagnostics: Progress and translational challenges

This article reviews the current best diagnostic tools available for TB diagnosis and monitoring, and describes the most important gaps, and translational challenges for developing innovative products that can meet the needs.

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Madhukar Pai: Transforming the diagnosis of tuberculosis

Interview with Professor Madhukar Pai, MD, PhD by Claire Raison

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India: TB control: five key reasons to engage the private sector

India accounts for a quarter of the 8.6 million cases of TB that occur worldwide. India also accounts for a third of the ‘missing 3 million TB cases’ that do not get diagnosed or notified. Not only is TB not going away, we are now seeing severe forms of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).

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Promoting affordable and quality tuberculosis testing in India

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of India’s biggest health problems. Every year, India reports over 2 million TB cases. With the emergence of severe forms of drug‑resistant TB and concerns about TB drug shortages, there is much work to be done to control the epidemic.

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